Waterflooding Performance of Communicating Stratified Reservoirs With Log-Normal Permeability Distri


By Noaman El-Khatib.


An analytical solution is developed for waterflooding performance of layered reservoirs with a log-normal permeability distribution with complete crossflow between layers. The permeability distribution is characterized by the Dykstra-Parsons ~DP! variation coefficient VDP or the standard deviation of the distribution sk . The performance is expressed in terms of vertical coverage as function of the producing water-oil ratio. Also an expression for the dimensionless time ~pore volumes of injected water! at a given water-oil ratio is derived. Expressions are also derived for pseudorelative permeability functions and fractional flow curves that can be used in reservoir simulation. Correlation charts are also presented to enable graphical determination of the performance. The variables are combined in such a way that a single chart is constructed for the entire range of water-oil ratio, mobility ratio and permeability variation. Analogy to the Buckley-Leverett ~BL! multiple-valued saturation profile is found to occur at low mobility ratios (M,1) where a multiple-valued displacement front is formed. A procedure similar to the BL discontinuity is suggested to handle this situation. Successive layers with different permeabilities are allowed to move with the same velocity resulting in a single-valued profile with a discontinuity. No such behavior is observed for mobility ratios greater than unity. A criterion for the minimum mobility ratio at which this behavior occurs is presented as a function of the variation coefficient VDP .


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